Image Types

JPEG, TIFF, GIF, RAW, BMP and PNG are all file types used to encode digital images. This article will explain certain features of image file types.

Compression

The main reason for this large collection of file types is the need for compression (cutting the size of the file). Compression can be either Lossy or Lossless.

Lossless compression doesn’t discard any information. It uses more efficient ways to represent an image without losing any accuracy in the image. Eg: Replaces a recurring pattern in a file with a short abbreviation to reduce file size.
https://image.tf/show/csWt6mJF3QDUaisH

Lossy compression does discard some information in order to achieve smaller file size. Eg: Stores color information at a lower resolution (because our eyes aren’t as sensitive to small changes in color) than the image itself to reduce file size.
https://image.tf/show/z81tlIKrPwOVfoy0


Vectors and Bitmaps (Raster)

A bitmapped image is called that because the image is made of squares- squares mapped to a grid. Bitmaps don’t require as much computer power as vectors do. Eg: A bunch of blocks/squares, all a different color and opacity, make up an image of Joe.

https://image.tf/show/dq1VUyRQVAsVFexh

A vector image or vector drawing is made up of a mathematical description of start points and end points. Vectors are most common to graphics artists because they can be converted into any size their customer wants. Eg: Draw a line from start point X, Y to end point X1, Y1.

https://image.tf/show/xIbjoG7Mck8opHTu


Examples of image types:

JPEG
Compression: Lossy
Type: Bitmap
Advantages:
-Large compression ratios = shorter file transfer time
Disadvantages:
-Loss of image quality
TIFF
Compression: Uncompressed (can be either lossy or lossless)
Type: Bitmap
Advantages:
-No loss of image detail
Disadvantages:
-Large file size
GIF
Compression: Lossless
Type: Bitmap
Advantages:
-Quality is not lost during compression.
Disadvantages:
-Low variety of supported colours.
RAW
Compression: Lossless
Type: Bitmap
Advantages:
-More options during post production
Disadvantages:
-Longer workflow (more time consuming)
BMP
Compression: Uncompressed (can be either lossy or lossless)
Type: Bitmap
Advantages:
-Stores each pixel independently (higher quality)
-Universal (can be used with almost any program)

Disadvantages:
-Image file size (usually huge)
PNG
Compression: Lossless
Type: Bitmap
Advantages:
-Offers a variety of image transparency options
Disadvantages:
-Doesn’t support animation (but can through a file extension called MNG)


Hope you found this article interesting! 1f609

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